Low Speed Accident Injury and Causality

153 Pages



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Preface. 3

Acknowledgements. 6

Soft Tissue Injury. 7

Soft Tissue Injuries: What are they and the Long-Term Impact of Bodily Injury. 8

Ligament Pathology as Sequela to Trauma Coupled with Alteration of Motion Segment Integrity (AOMSI) or Ligamentous Laxity. 13

Ligament Failure and Sprain/Strain Reported as Permanent in Whiplash. 16

One of the Most Important Diagnostic Test Results in Affecting Case Values in Soft Tissue Injury Cases. 19

Sprain/Strain is ONE Syndrome, Not Two Separate Pathologies, And Is Permanent. 23

Traumatic Ligament Laxity of the Spine and Associated Physical Impairment. 28

Motor Vehicle Collisions. 39

Low-Speed Collisions. 40

Conservation of Momentum: Where Does the Energy Go,          Part I 40

Conservation of Momentum: Where Does the Energy Go,           Part II 44

Motor Vehicle Accidents: Little or No Damage Collisions & Demonstrable Verification of Energy Transferences to Cause Bodily Injury. 48

Low-Speed Crashes and Missed Vehicle Damage: Standards to Demand in a Vehicle Inspection. 51

Low-Speed Crash Does Not Mean LOW ENERGY. 55

Low-Speed Damages and Injuries. 63

Tires. 71

Tires: Pressure, Stopping Distance and Causality – Part I 71

Tires: Pressure, Stopping Distance and Causality – Part II 76

Tire Skid Marks & Causality. 79

Accident Reconstruction. 83

Crash Dynamics and Accident Reconstruction Q & A’s. 83

Accident Scenes & Police Reports. 87

Why are Accident Engineering Reports Incomplete and/or Misleading?. 90

Intervertebral Disc Injury. 94

Age Dating. 95

Age Dating Disc Injury: Herniations and Bulges. Causally Relating Traumatic Disc Injury at Low Speeds. 95

Reporting in a Medical-Legal Environment: Causal Relation by Age Dating C4-C5 Herniated Disc in a Low-Speed Crash. 104

Causality. 107

Disc and Ligament Injuries: How Spinal Experts Document Causality. 108

Bulging Discs and Trauma: Causality and a Risk Factor. 115

Concussion. 125

Concussion: Diagnosis-Testing-Chiropractic. “New Testing is Available Using Biomarkers.”. 126

Chiropractic Spine Care. 131

Chiropractic Primary Spine Care: A Mandatory “future trend” for Chiropractic Success That Has Already Begun. 132

Workers Compensation and Chiropractic: A Solution for Lowering Healthcare Costs for the Acute and Chronic Care Patient. 140

Ranges of Motion as a Utility for Outcome Assessments: Chiropractic Taking a Lead Role in Rendering Accurate Assessments for Spine. 153